The multiple personalities in the strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Hyde reveal a doctor who turns out to be evil upon consuming some potion. Today, the term Jekyll and Hyde are used to describe human beings who show two personalities at different times. However, such characters must be good and evil to show some contrast in personality traits. A good example of a group of people who successfully hide their multiple personalities from friends and family is patients. This paper will discuss multiple personality in the extraordinary case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In doing this, the paper will view the dualism in the personality traits of characters in the case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, and later use the Freud’s theory of dream as the window to the unconscious mind to analyze the multiple characters.
Multiple Personality in the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Chapter One: The Good versus Evil in the Characters
Multiple personality disorder makes human beings use the birth names that force them to show some guilt, feel depressed and have a passive feeling towards others. However, this identity does not recognize the existence of the other, although it could be the subject of a discussion for the hidden identity. People with multiple personality disorders will try to display symptoms, such as injuries, which are self-inflicted, and attempt suicide. Sometimes the individuals may display perversions of post-traumatic stress, nightmares or even ease of startling. Similarly, symptoms of eating disorders, anxiety, depression, and substance abuse may also be shown by people with multiple personalities.
The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a fictional tale that revolves around the multiple personalities of Dr. Henry Jekyll, who turned into Hyde upon consuming a potion. To clearly explain the concept of multiple personalities, the novel uses a character that poses the traits of good and wicked all through the theme and plot. These heroes in the novel are used to illustrate the contrast between good and evil in society. The character in the novel is Dr. Henry Jekyll, a London-based physician, born in a wealthy family. He is the first and main character in the novel. The doctor is aged fifty years old, large with a smooth face. Dr. Jekyll is used in the novel to depict a character who pretends to be serious and brave on public, but the real sense has concealed a gaiety in himself. Dr. Jekyll successfully demonstrates this character by portraying himself as a double-dealer who believes in the earnest of both perspectives of his dualism in personal self. This could be a hypocritical move in a real sense. However, the character cleverly hides this aspect of evil in him. This is an excellent example of a figure that has evil motives in the inner feelings but still wants to impress the public that he possesses the good traits, which are influential in the life of teenagers.
Dr. Jekyll argues that he is no longer alone when he engages in helping with the suffering using the knowledge he has. Besides, Dr. Jekyll says that whatever he undergoes during the night is a shameful behavior that may be worse than what he does in the day (Stevenson, 12). This argument is intended to show how Dr. Jekyll is a hypocrite, only interested in impressing the people he serves, rather than doing the right thing. This argument makes Dr. Jekyll realize that he is no different from other human beings who hide a dual nature in them. It is from this perspective that Dr. Jekyll applies chemistry to separate the two sides of a human being so that people can exploit all the dual personalities without any conflict.
Dr. Jekyll’s objective is to ensure that one personality of an individual can find pleasure without the feeling of guilt, while the other one remains focused and steadfast to other activities, without having any influences from its counterpart seeking pleasure. Dr. Jekyll thus portrays a superego character in the novel that illustrates the personality of human beings who poses a social order where one side does not dominate the other or control a human personality that is socially responsible. This is called the dualism.
The multiple personality disorder in Dr. Jekyll is revealed when he turns into Edward Hyde, bringing out his evil side. Dr. Jekyll conversion into Edward’s in this scene makes the whole scenario detestable and difficult to explain. Through appearance as Edward Hyde, Dr. Jekyll has vividly shown the concept of deformity, but no one is in a position to explain the precise extent of the deformity. Hyde is only visible in the mind of the other characters in the novel, but none of the characters is capable of explaining his physical presence. This is a clear illustration of some evil spirits that, manifested itself in human beings, have some influence, but with which no physical account can be associated. Other characters can only give an imaginary description of Hyde. He is described as being dwarf and pale, with a murderous smile mixed with boldness and timidity. This is the actual features that an evil being will have at any public place.
The troglodytic nature that Dr. Jekyll displays while disguised as Hyde is a clear indicator that Hyde is multiple personalities of Dr. Jekyll that is evil and does not represent a normal human being. Some people may be seen to be integrated between both bad and good but in the case of Hyde; it is a purely evil nature of Dr. Jekyll that comes out of him. It is this wicked side that makes Dr. Jekyll turn into Hyde without any chemicals, making it difficult to go back to the previous state as Dr. Jekyll. In this case, Hyde has been used to illustrate the human drive and id force in human beings that go for its heinous wants, without considering the welfare of others.
Another multiple personality traits of Dr. Jekyll is illustrated when he shows a sardonic tolerance that human beings display towards others. He is seen arguing that he is satisfied with the decision of his brother to go to the devil at his will. This is a clear indicator of a personality trait that is good with no villainous intentions. However, he may seem to be mixed up with good and wrong in the fact that he knowingly realizes that his brother is going to the devil but cannot attest to the move. The brutal behavior portrayed by Dr. Jekyll while disguised as Hyde-like trample a child after knocking her down is also another indicator of multiple personalities that show an evil. Moreover, further evil is revealed in the personality of Dr. Jekyll when he kills Sir Danvers Carew while disguised as Hyde.
The brutal killing of Sir Danvers Carew marks the beginning of the sinful behavior of Dr. Jekyll, thus making him seen as a total inhuman with only vile characters. The discovery of the similarity in Dr. Jekyll’s handwriting and Mr. Hyde’s one reveals that Hyde is just an imaginary human being that brings out the evil personality of Dr. Jekyll, who has constancy played the role of a good personality. At this point, further proof comes out clearly that Hyde is only visible in the mind of the characters but there is no scene that he is physically present in. Further proof is given with Dr. Jekyll confusing “I” and he while talking about Hyde, as denies any knowledge of Hyde but keeps on referring to Hyde as “I”.
Dr. Jekyll already discovered that he was the same person, pretending to be Mr. Hyde. There was not any room for him to continue creating other characters, which is why he had to cast out the beast in him. While this was happening, Dr. Jekyll was fully aware of everything that was taking place and battled the evil intentionally, this was because of the influence of the unconscious mind that controls multiple personality disorder of Dr. Jekyll.
What Multiple Personality Disorder Entails
Multiple personality disorder refers to a severe sickness of the mind that forces human beings to display a double-sided personality that is a contrast of each other. The tow personalities give distinct identity traits that classify a person in different perspectives. Amount of human personality traits may be various, but the ones displayed by the majority of patients ranges from 10 to 15. Each of these distinct features controls human behavior for a certain period. The patients, in turn, adopt unique names, movements, lifestyles, and voices. In most cases, a personality crisis may lead to a total loss of memory over experiences that took place in the past. Such a disorder can take the form of separation of human’s nature into parts, resulting in a dissociative identity disorder. It is important for an individual to distinguish personality disorder with schizophrenia, although the two have the same symptoms. The cause of multiple personality disorders are diverse and manifest themselves in different ways. First, it begins with the experience of child abuse during the early childhood stages. The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Hyde is an example of this prerequisite since he at one point suffered trauma while he was a child. It is for this reason that multiple personality disorder in the strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Hyde is seen as an attempt to come out of a traumatic experience. In this regard, Dr. Jekyll hides memories of his childhood’s experience by displaying multiple temperaments in the novel.
Multiple personality disorders have several symptoms that reveal themselves in various ways. For instance, the sign of amnesia that makes individuals unable to remember events that took place a long time ago is one of them. Dr. Jekyll and Hyde case are an example where Dr. Hyde is completely incapable of remembering the events that took place in his life sometime back (Stevenson, 18). Besides, amnesia will make patients completely incapable of telling stories that lead to actual events in their life despite having experienced them. Trauma that results from a long-lasting psychological shock is also a sign of multiple personalities in human beings. This is clearly brought out in the strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde where even the wife could not believe the events in the novel and only described them as evil.
Sometimes it is possible to confuse a common problem with multiple personality disorders because of the wide range of signs and symptoms displayed by the patients. It is, thus, required that the proper diagnosis of patients with multiple personality disorders take up to six years before a conclusion is made. Nonetheless, the number of multiple personality disorders has risen to high levels in recent years. The reason may be due to the extra care and attention that doctors give to the symptoms of multiple personality disorders. Notwithstanding this case, the majority of those who are diagnosed with multiple personality disorders are those who open up about their childhood memories.
The process of diagnosing multiple personality disorders requires vigilance and care so that the wrong conclusion is not made. This calls for the observation of two personalities that are distinct and contrasting. Besides, the personalities observed must be dominant for some time so that its effect on the patient is seen. A proper patient journal to keep records of the dominance displayed by the distinct personality traits must be kept at all times. Additionally, doctors will use hypnosis to understand the different identities displayed by various personality traits of the patient.
During the treatment, the doctor’s focus on bringing the two distinct characters into a single identity that helps the patient come out of his or her predicaments. Moreover, the therapy given to patients helps them remember the past ordeal and/or traumatic experiences that formed bad memories and emotions in them. However, the care is provided to ensure that the principle identity of the patient is not split into two different parts. Despite that, doctors are likely to achieve success in pinpoint multiple personality experiences, the full treatment of the disorder may take long years to be realized. A patient subjected to hypnosis will undergo a state of trance so that he can recall suppressed and forgotten memories, making him responsive to all suggestions posted.
Subjects with multiple personality disorders usually complain of being possessed by somebody else. However, the similarity between the symptoms of multiple personality disorder and Schizophrenia cannot make us confuse that Dr., Jekyll could have suffered from something different than a multiple personality disorder. The drink that Dr. Jekyll took might turn out to be water. However, after the grandiose delusion, the drink emerged to be a potion. If this perspective of argument is taken, we may assume that Dr. Jekyll imbibed the potion, making him turn to his evil side displayed in Hyde (Stevenson, 19). Besides, Dr. Jekyll hard a difficult and perplexity over his identity and the precise meaning of existence. Multiple personality disorder can be used to prove that the drink was water from the perspective of an unconscious mind. It is the unconscious mind that made Dr. Jekyll imagine that the drink was potion taken in form of water to avoid the feeling of guilt. This would defend Dr. Jekyll from any allegation after the action in response to the influence of the drug.
The cycle of multiple personality disorders that Dr. Jekyll was going through was the main reason Dr. Jekyll turned to Hyde. From the characters traits displayed by Hyde that include, cold, unscrupulous, antisocial, unkind, brusque, withdrawn, suspicious, sullen, and grouchy, makes him seek solitude in the novel. Additionally, Hyde behaves in solitude, a quiet and independent manner that helps him keep his thought to himself, thus absorbing the scientific pursuits, which illustrate the actual character traits of Jekyll. From this perspective, it is evident that Dr. Jekyll had a multiple personality disorder, turning from Jekyll to Hyde in the novel – a clear illustration of the different traits shown by people with this disorder.
In the strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the author, Louis Stevenson has successfully created a representation of the unconsciousness that is haunting the individual. Even the modern definition of psychology described the occurrence as an event that is deeply disturbing. Stevenson’s literature works depict a scenario where the unconsciousness makes human being mirror themselves in a multiplex personality. Additionally, the duality in the strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde makes the story of morally shocking and fascinating. The move to take away the aspect of multiple personalities from the bodily part of Dr. Jekyll and Mr, Hyde makes Hyde possess a dissociated personality trait, making him appear as an individual with a different build, expression, appearance, and age that is totally distinct from Dr. Jekyll. It is also illustrated that this change in personality is against the will of a human being and makes an individual look quite other than while in his/her ordinary state. The most significant part of this experience is the move to make Hyde look more evil with more contrasting traits as compared to Dr. Jekyll.
The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde makes us understand the division created by the unconscious mind is a moral aspect of an individual that is uncontrollable. These inevitable morals are the specter and the self that create fear in human beings. Jekyll uses his individual case to claim the division in personality traits, which leaves us guessing on the exact nature of Hyde and the kind of evil he bears. It is only by accepting the other personality of Jekyll as depicted in Hyde in the bodily variation, that we can relate Jekyll and Hyde.
Later in the literature, it is revealed that Hyde’s evil possession is manifested in the malice, cowardice, selfishness, and cruelty, which is a diabolical representation of a beast in man, or a human possessed with spirits. His hypocrisy makes him harm Jekyll. In fact, it is clearly stated in the novel that Jekyll was not of both good and evil personality features but was a person with an unmixed essence that normal human being usually doesn’t have. On the other hand, it is expected that humans have varying degrees of wicked and positive personality traits. These concepts of multiple personalities, as depicted in Hyde, makes him appear totally from a human being. It is not funny to hear Jekyll distant himself from the evil actions of Hyde yet he is experiencing the acts, releasing them and also very much aware of the acts.
The distinction between the two personalities that come pout in Hyde and Jekyll makes us understand the inhuman actions of Jekyll and Hyde. This also formulates a fundamental definition of duality in human nature despite the fact that Hyde denies any association with Jekyll especially when it comes to Jekyll’s childhood desires and pleasures Through the frequent sexual escapades, it is possible to attribute the evil side of Hyde to the hypocrisy demonstrated by Jekyll, even though there is no evidence of a fantasy or sexual expression in the infancy age. Freud reads through Hyde and finds out about all the personality traits that can be used to tell the twisted nature of Hyde. What makes this illustration even more significant is the duality, monstrous and vile pleasure that drives Hyde. Moreover, Freud’s theory of suppressed wish illustrates that when a patient wishes to forget a certain memory, then the patient is forced to suppress the memory. When this happens, the repression tends to keep the mental content inside the unconscious mind, hence making the human being aware of the repressed wish. On the other hand, a suppression removes the awareness from the mental and conscious mind, making an individual forget about the suppressed wish. Therefore, the theory of suppression tends to make human display both conscious and unconscious characteristics, leading to multiple personality disorder.
The influence of childhood trauma in Jekyll’s case is revealed when he admits that during his early age, he was given out as a disposition to a gaiety who constantly displayed the impatience with him. During this time, Jekyll laid aside in restraint mood with a feeling of shame. This experience can be linked to a sexual escapade that led to the ultimate development of the perverted behavior manifested in Hyde.
The voice of Utterson comes out in a manner that illustrates the self-denial in an extreme way. This feeling, combined with the appearance of prostitutes and fiances, create a love relation that signifies a sexual dualism and sadism. The result is a portrayal of Jekyll as a young and good looking person thus creating a contrasting story with apparent sexual repression. Additionally, the reading bears a good revealing and cultural representation that the strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde give a psychological account used to explain the distinct identity of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Also, there is much ground on which the insistence by Stevenson that Hyde is a mere Voluptuary can be dismissed. This is because this literature piece is full of narcissism, violence, and denial or acceptance of Dr. Jekyll and Hyde in a hypocritical way.
The structure of multiple personalities and unconscious minds clearly comes out of the literature with a careful examination of Mr. Hyde and Dr. Jekyll in a clear manner, without confusing plurality with the fragmented unity of dualism. For instance, the sexual hypothesis represents a sexual desire, and this may be linked to Hyde’s case since we are not aware of the actions apart from trampling a child, smiting a woman and murdering Sir Danvers Carew. The duality of cruelty and cowardice in Hyde’s personality is also brought out by the denial of the author that Hyde is a mere voluptuary. Besides, this denial adds to the allegation that selfishness and a sexual desire makes people confuse evil with the right. From this point, it can be seen that sexuality may turn to be evil when it incorporates the aspects of selfishness, cruelty, and cowardice. The fact that Hyde displays no motive other than that of evil and the inhuman person makes him unique from others. Moreover, he does not need any additional traits to make him possess a full personality, unlike Jekyll, who displays a common human nature. Jekyll, on the other hand, clarifies this assumption while giving a detailed account of his awareness of Hyde and his delight recognition of Mr. Hyde as himself despite the evil, bad and the utter difference Hyde displays to Jekyll.
The major method of recognizing the duality in the strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is the trait displayed by Mr. Hyde where he appears as neither repressed nor unconscious. However, Dr. Jekyll is fully aware of whatever is transpiring and does not do anything to create him. Instead, Jekyll releases Hyde through splitting or disintegration forming a duality personality with multiple individuals possessing no character similar to Jekyll.
When Jekyll confuses the pronunciation and makes a dramatic shift from pronouncing I to him, the revelation of the ambiguity in his identity on Mr. Hyde comes out. The phenomenon of multiple personalities also comes out when Jekyll says that he cannot pronounce the word I. this scenario is exactly what happens in the case of a dissociated personality, where one personality trait claims the identity of another that is its conscious version by saying I for both personalities. Hyde fulfills this argument by saying that he is not Dr. Jekyll and constantly refers to himself as “he.”
Hyde’s evil personality traits is an indicator of the personality features described in psychiatric literature. Also, the character and existence of Hyde under the catalyst drug can only be described by the theory of psychology that is recognized as an exceptional form of hysteria. Stevenson uses the same description as Janet’s dissociation of Hysteria that suggests a comparable personality structure utilized by the Freud’s repression theory. In fact, it can be proven that Stevenson only displayed a modern form of dissociation in his description of Hyde’s trait about Jekyll’s traits. In this regard, the multiple personalities in the strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are clearly illustrated. The assumption that mental process multiplicity is normal to the extent of reaching a coexisting and well-coordinated level of control makes dissociation evident in the case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Besides, the multifarious nature of the mind is created by the evident nature of dissociation as in the case of Hyde and Dr. Jekyll.
Although in a real-life situation people do not split into two different parts of an individual self, allegory has been applied in the strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Hyde to bring the concept of the ghost in the literature. There is no way Dr. Jekyll could split into a different individual with different age and physical body characteristics as displayed in the literature by Stevenson. It may be assumed that Stevenson was merely responding to the call by his publisher to come up with an entertainment story touching on these issues. But the significance of Hyde appearing smaller that Dr. Jekyll is not something that can be assumed. Moreover, the intervention of Dr. Jekyll through a faction to Agnes Carew is a dramatic twist, given the fact that it is Sir Danvers Carew who comes out as the most prominent victim of the voice produced by Hyde. The removal of a character stripteasing just in front of Dr. Jekyll reveals that Dr. Jekyll wished to venture in all kinds of debauchery and sexual acts. Thus, the appearance of Hyde as Jekyll’s hidden self is only meant to give Dr. Jekyll a go-ahead to do so.
Other allegorical interpretation of the case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde shows that Jekyll is an embroidery illustration of an ego that represents the rational self while Hyde is the id that represents the intrinsic self. Dr. Jekyll is portrayed as a person with a drunk personality, a pederast, a drug addict, and a homosexual. These being the activities that are condemned in the social scene, Hyde gives the veiled portrayal that they are common practices. Dr. Jekyll and Hyde lead a double life that is also revealed by the betrayal of Sir Danvers Carew in a back way (Stroop, 13).
The double life that Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde live is a clear representation of two extremes in life. Mr. Hyde is used to illustrating the malevolent scientist side of seeking pleasure with all means and resisting any source of obstruction to the acquisition of that wish. This portrayal is the cause of the temper that Hyde portrays. On the contrary, Dr. Jekyll displays a moral side that science created by tearing human personality into moral, physical and philosophical parts.
The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde illustrates a serious romance story that targets young people. Adult life is converted into a thrilling so as to pose a challenge to the youngsters to consider the kind of ambiguity that comes with life in human nature. The ambiguity is revealed when he, who is interested in psychology, penetrates facades and exposes the reality in the attitude Dr. Jekyll has toward Mr. Hyde. Besides, the theory of dualism that insists on two extremes of an individual’s personality trait of an evil twin and a reasonable part always at war. This is the turning point in the strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In reality, Hyde is split from Jekyll with one brain and a body rather than existing in two different parts as thought.
The two are not separated in the real sense, but only change forms where Hyde replaces Dr. Jekyll within whom he resided in. Despite that fact that the existence of Hyde solely depends on Jekyll’s presence, Jekyll denies Hyde for quite a long time (Stevenson, 15). The dramatic point is brought out by the use of a chemical potion. This drama gives the explanation of why Hyde transforms from an individual who impersonally tramples a child to a cruel and selfish person who perishes at the behest of Jekyll’s hatred. Dr. Jekyll goes ahead to completely dissociates from Mr. Hyde and denies him as his part. The person whom Hyde owes his real life is seen as the source of all misfortunes and predicament Hyde is facing as he becomes eviler. Jekyll takes control of will after realizing that he was trying to do an impossible thing, and relies on a pure potion of a chemical, thus bringing frustration and desperation that causes the suicide of Hyde leading to the loss of Hyde and Dr. Jekyll.
The essential theme of ambiguity and self is always in contrast with each other Utterson, and Enfield is in a mysterious friendship since they are the exact opposite of each other. Hyde’s identity also provided an anecdote for Enfield, but Utterson finds it a troublesome thing. It is fatal for Dr. Lanyon to acknowledge that Hyde and Jekyll are two distinct people since they are not split personalities but rather illustrates the intense conflict that Dr. Jekyll has with himself. Thus, the case provides young people with the risks associated with denying duality as human nature.
Chapter Two: Dreams Is the Widow to the Unconscious Mind According to Freud Theory of Personality (Id-Ego-Super Ego)
The window of the unconscious mind is manifested in the topographical model theory developed by Freud. This theory of the unconscious mind divides the physical mind into two-part; the upper smaller portion is referred to as the conscious mind while the lower part is referred to as the unconscious mind. Through a topographical representation, Freud reveals that the unconscious minds are the evil personality traits of an individual and clearly explains why at some point human being show dualism in their actions. The Freud theory vividly describes the features and functions of the mind, depending on the structure the mind possessed. With the aid of an iceberg analogy, he clearly separated the mind into three parts. The surface of the minds is regarded as the conscious part of getting a mindset that focuses on the attention of human beings in their present states. The preconscious part of the mind is at the middle of the partitioned mid and consist of traits that are retrieved from good memory.
Freud theory noted that the unconsciousness was the most significant part of the brain and the largest. It is from this part that the process that causes the actual human behavior originates. This part is not seen and is partly hidden away from the vicinity of human beings. Thus, just like an iceberg, that is partly floating on water with parts hidden underwater, the conscious part is seen while the unconscious part is not visible
Freud’s theory of unconscious mind argues that the unconscious part of the mind is the caldron, repository of all the primitive thoughts and impulses separated and intervened by the preconscious part of the mind. To justify this theory, Freud used the example of his patients whom he had observed portraying frightening and painful behaviors towards certain events that the patients could not recognize. He thus concluded that the information that led to such feeling was only hidden in the unconscious part of the mind. Moreover, Freud argued that the repression process was responsible for the continued spread of the consequences of the contents stored in the unconscious part of the brain.
Nonetheless, Freud’s theory emphasized the significance of the unconscious part of the mind as the principal controller of human behavior beyond the expectation of people. However, turning the unconscious part into a conscious one
remains the goal of all psychoanalysis despite being seen as a vital part of the brain and general human behavior and personality traits.
The psyche relates Freud’s theory of personality to dreams as the window to the unconscious mind. According to psyche analysis, the human personality is manifested in three dimensions, the Id that represents the human instinct usually located in the inner personality, the ego aspect that usually illustrates a reality in human beings and is seen from the outside, and the superego aspect of personality that illustrates the moral trait of a human being. This three-dimensional perspective of a human personality was developed by Freud using a structural model of the mind that constitutes the psychic apparatus. These three parts are also known as the Id-Ego-Super ego are hypothetical means of conceptualizing the significant mental role of the mind. That means that they are not physically present in the human mind.
Freud theory assumed that the id part of the brain that controls instinct functions within the level of unconsciousness subject to the pleasure principles. The main driver of the id part is the urge to and content of fulfilling the basic instincts. These may be the two biological drives known as the Thanatos and Eros. The Eros is the life instinct drivers that facilitate the survival of human beings. This instinct may create energy known as libido and controls other activities that sustain normal life such as feeding, respiration, and sex. On the other hand, Thanatos represents the death instinct that causes destructive forces witnessed in human beings. It may be expressed in the form of violence and aggression when directed outside the mind (Freud, 26). The ability of a human being to survive from being self-destructive was opined by Freud’s theory to be caused by the stronger Eros than Thanatos in the mind.
The id develops into ego when human beings are in the infancy stage. This way, the ego will ensure that the demands of id are met in a socially acceptable and safe way. However, the ego is made to follow the principle of reality because it is situated at the unconscious and conscious parts of the mind.
The superego develops at the early stage of childhood. It is the driver that makes a child capable of identifying himself/herself with the parents of the same sex to follow moral behaviors. It functions based on the principle of morality thus motivating human beings to show a socially acceptable behavior in an acceptable manner. However, notwithstanding the distinction that exists in the three psychic apparatus of the mind, the conflict generated from the inner parts of the brain constituting the conscious and the unconscious parts is inevitable. It is the superego that makes human beings feel guilty of their mistake. This means that the ego mediates the conflict that may arise between the objectives of superego and id
To prevent the anxiety from overwhelming the ego, several defense mechanisms have been displayed by the ego. These include repression that keeps disturbing thoughts, thus preventing them from changing to conscious. Denial is also a self-defense mechanism that involves the prevention of any exterior event from becoming an awareness. It is the defense that helps human being refuse to handle situations that prove to me too much for them. Similarly, the ego may display rejection where human beings display their feelings, thoughts, and motives to other people. Sometimes the ego displays displacement where he satisfies aggression using another alternative object. In case such defense fails, and then the ego may display regression where human beings take a backward step during stressful situations. None the less, the ego may use sublimation to satisfy aggression using an alternative object but in a socially acceptable manner.
Freud observed in his theory that this may take the form of psychosexual stages where people cannot suppress their sexual need due to neurotic illnesses. Experiences of patient desires wish, love, shame, fear and guilt and how such emotions were handled. This was the most controversial part of the Freud theory since children do seek pleasure from different objects during their childhood stages. Thus, Freud concluded that a psychologically healthy person must utilize the three parts of the brain to display a normal personality. In case, any of the stages are skipped, and then mental abnormality develops thus making human being become fixated at some point. Thus, the personality of adults is determined by childhood encounters.
Freud related dreams and defenses and considered that dream could be a path to the unconscious part of the mind. According to Freud, the fact that the defense of the ego was located in dreams makes this theory true. Besides, such protection measures are brought down to a human being can become aware when the repressed materials come out in a distorted form. Critical functions of the unconscious mind are undertaken by dreams and give a clue to the unconscious part of the mind about how it should operate. Freud used a personal dream to justify this theory that the guilt and worries he had a patient who was not responding to treatment were as a result of defense being repressed out of the unconscious mind.
Freud interpreted his dream as a fulfillment of his wish and claimed that it was the fault of another doctor who had subjected the patient to a dirty syringe, causing harm to the patient. His fear that he was the fault behind the patient’s predicament was fulfilled by the dream he had over the previous incident. In fact, Freud’s actual dream was that he met the patient at a party and examined her. However, she had been treated by a doctor who used dangerous syringes on her that was responsible for her predicament. Based on a personal experience of dreams, Freud concluded that the dream plays a significant role in fulfilling human wishes.
He, however, suggested that there exists a difference between the latent and the manifest content of the dream. According to him, what the dreamer could remember constitutes the manifest content of the dream while what the symbolic, meaning the dream had been the latent part of the dream. Freud also noted that the events that took place in the dreamer’s life during the day were the drivers to the manifest content of the dream. The underlying wish of the dreamer is translated into the dreams manifest through dream work. Thus, the dream-works objective is to change the wish that is forbidden into a form that is not threatening the dreamer. This way, the dreamer is capable of reducing the anxiety and go on sleeping during the night. Freud also noted that the process of displacement, secondary elaboration and condemnation were vital parts of the dream work. While condemnation joins diverse images and ideas into one, the displacement transforms the image of a person the dreamer is concerned about into another one. For instance, when one of Freud’s patients who had always referred to his sister in law as a dog dreamt of strangling a dog to death, it symbolized that the patient wished to kill the sister in law. It was also in the opinion of Freud that it is the unconscious mind that turned the sister in law into a dog to prevent guilt.
Secondary elaboration is the case whereby the unconscious mind brings together all images that fulfill wishes in chronological order of activities. This way, the unconscious mind is capable of preventing the latent the content of the dream. Thus, manifest content has remained to be a formidable part of events that are believable. Nonetheless, Freud examined the possibility of common symbols in dreams that may take the form of poles, sexual objects, swords, and guns. He took caution that such general symbols could mean a personal perspective of the dream rather than a common view of the dream. It is for this reason that human beings are not in a position to translate the meaning of the manifest content in dreams unless they are aware of the circumstances that led to such manifest. Dream dictionaries were irritation limitations to universal the symbols in the dream because patients started linking him to all kinds of common objects in their dream to give wrong interpretations.
Evaluation of Dream Analysis as the Window to Unconscious Mind, Thus the Multiple Personality in Human Beings
Freud’s theory of dreaming is the window to the unconscious mind has enough evidence that can be used to prove that dreams indeed is the cause of multiple personality disorder. This makes the dream theory more factual. Moreover, Freud’s theory can be justified by the fact that the unconscious mind can be measured through the unconscious consequences such as automatic processes, procedural memory, and social psychology have significance in implicit processing thus illustrating the role played by an unconscious process in the mind to human behavior in
Symbols used in dreams are described by Freud’s theory as an expression of the unconscious mind. These symbols in dreams that symbolize sexual nature such as guns, swords, poles are used to illustrate a penis while a horse dancing signifies sexual intercourse. These symbols express the unconscious mind by showing the personality traits manifested in the actual interpretation of the dream from the manifest content of the dream. Universal symbols in dreams are often confused with personal symbols in dreams. For instance, the mother of the fish seen by the patient in Utterson dream was an illustration of his mother and not a penis that symbolizes sexual personality in the novel. Thus, the theory of a dream suppression by Freud is representational and proof of dreams representing the unconscious mind and thus affecting the personality traits of an individual. Moreover, the interpretation of the dream samples may be used to understand the multiple personality disorder.
In conclusion, the multiple personalities will make people display totally contrasting personality traits in the public than while far away from their colleagues or even in the darkness. It is for this reason that human beings will pretend to be polite, shy, and sympathetic and socially acceptable while near their friends and family only to display the exact opposite of these traits at a far distance. None the less, if the Freud theory is evaluated in the form of a specific hypothesis instead of the whole theory, then they can be seen as a representation of the multiple personalities displayed by people.