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Article Critique I: “Childhood Language Disorder and Social Anxiety in Early Adulthood”


The article, “Childhood Language Disorder and Social Anxiety in Early Adulthood,” presents the results of a 26-year study of children with language disorders (LD) aged five years and a control group. Brownlie, Bao, and Beitchman (2016) explain the issue of LD and the difficulties experienced by children suffering from the disorder. The article proceeds to categorize various challenges children encounter at this age. They include “social difficulties including social withdrawal, reticence, and difficulty joining groups of peers” (Brownlie et al., 2015). In addition, their relevance is highlighted regarding the way they affect a child’s adulthood. In the article, the authors quote from impressive studies to illustrate the prevalence of the disorder.

Brownlie et al. detail the etiology and epidemiology of LD among adolescents and children stressing on its causes, treatment, diagnosis, and assessment. Moreover, the article tackles the issues of childhood as well as adult anxiety. Discussing these aspects, the authors concentrate on the need for closer monitoring of LD and the proper measures to be adopted in addressing this problem. An expose of the materials, methods, and procedures followed in this study provides quantitative data on language disorders. Therefore, the study reveals the four main criteria of LD. In addition, the research emphasizes the role that psychosocial anxiety plays in influencing the development of language disorder in children and adults. Data used in the study quantitatively links anxiety to the cases of LD. In interpreting these data, three major reasons are provided, namely demographics of the population studied, the tests of epidemiological design, and the low prevalence of socially disadvantaged individuals and SES. Brownlie et al. (2015) conclude the results of the article suggesting the various clinical implications of the study.

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Evaluation of the Quality of the Article

The article comprises the evidence-based research containing within it data that exposes the extent of the problem studied. To justify the need for investigating this area, the authors utilize results from previous studies and provide explanations to buttress their interpretation. A reader of the article is required to have the necessary technical know-how in order to perceive the implications of the evaluated data. In addition, the information provided offers a reader the necessary quantitative introduction to actualize his or her personal research. Moreover, the sources of the information are documented properly for reference and further reading at the convenience of the reader.

Agree/Disagree with Main Points

After carefully reading the article, I agree with the majority of the points made by Brownlie et al. (2015). The role that a child’s environment plays in forming its language ability is crucial. Results of previous studies are reflected in the current study on early childhood development. The authors’ assessments, diagnosis, and suggestions concerning the way the disorder should be prevented and treated are technically sound and plausible. In addition, the article helps mainstream the need to develop and implement effective policies and procedures in order to address the language disorders among the children of the school-going age. This step will serve to improve the quality of the procedures and methods of instruction as compared to those used for teaching non-deficient fellow students. The article offers the actions such as closer parent integration in providing care to children with LD, the need to diagnose this disorder correctly, empathy in understanding patients suffering from the illness, and the creation of enabling environments to people with LD. Therefore, their incorporation is vital in addressing language disabilities. With the proper and timely implementation of these guidelines, individuals with language disorders will be able to have meaningful and fulfilling lives.

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Application to Therapy

The article is important in equipping the therapists with the relevant details about the extent of the LD in the development of children at a young age. Uneasiness issue and early rising conditions connected with impressive formative, psychosocial, and psychopathological entanglements are normal. Early nervous disorders may be transmitted suddenly. However, nowadays, the majority of infants and teenagers who have built up a limit tension issue will be influenced by a similar condition or another mental issue over the further course of life. The latter include uneasiness issue, depressive issue, or substance use disarrangements. The optional improvement of the depressive issue is an especially visit entanglement over the scope of anxiety issue, calling for further studies outlining the procedures behind this expanded wretchedness chance among people with an anxiety issue.

Article Critique II: “A Linguistic Comparison Between Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Patients with a Psychotic Disorder and in Nonpsychotic Individuals: Not just What the Voices Say, but How They Say It”


The article by De Boer, Heringa, Van Dellen, Wijnen, and Sommer (2016) presents the results, recommendations, procedures, methods, and discussion on research regarding Audio Visual Hallucinations (AVH) in individuals with psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. The paper is divided into several sections, including an Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion of the Implications of the study. In the Introduction, the authors focus on providing the characteristics that define the disorder. De Boer et al. (2016) consider AVH as a primary symptom of people suffering from schizophrenia as well as among individuals displaying no symptoms of substance abuse and psychiatric or neurological complications. The authors provide a rich and comprehensive dissection of how the brain’s language centers assist in the thought process to emphasize the importance of understanding the way the condition develops. A review of how the roles of the right and left brain hemispheres in language are provided is backed by extensive references on results obtained in research of AVH.

In addition, the article presents a number of individuals studied as well as location, ethnicity, and the types of disorders they suffered from. The sample population consisted of 36 individuals (17 psychotic and 19 non-psychotic patients referred from medical institutions). Among the patients, 10 suffered from schizophrenia, four had schizoaffective disorder, three were psychotic, and the other three had no specific complication (De Boer et al., 2016). The methods section introduces the procedures the researchers followed in recording, analyzing, and transcribing responses from the patients. The results of their linguistic analysis of responses from the patients are tabulated in the Results section. In the Discussions section, De Boer et al. (2016) engage in comparisons of the data obtained in this study against the sample population. The authors conclude that AVH is more pronounceable in patients with psychosis because of complications in their right hemisphere. These patients demonstrated less syntactic complexity in linguistics (De Boer et al., 2016). Furthermore, the article identifies various limitations of the study such as the failure to record negative responses, the small sample studied, subjectivity introduced by a single individual recording responses, lack of objectivity in evaluating the linguistics variations present in Dutch language due to region, gender dialect, response length (monologue versus dialogue), and the intellectual level of the respondents.

Evaluation of the Quality of the Article

The authors of the article strive to avoid technical terms by keeping the writing simple and straightforward. It helps connect the reader to the content contained in the article without the need for defining the meaning of words or their context. Moreover, the article provides the relevant background information for the subject matter by quoting and referencing previous studies.

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Agree/Disagree with Main Point

I agree with the article’s main point because any meaningful conversation depends on the participants reaching a consensus on the levels of meaning since the spoken word must have a corresponding meaning to the listener. The researchers note, “in split-brain patients, the right hemisphere was only capable of recognizing object names but incapable of processing tenses, singularity versus plurality, or the relations between subject, verb and object” (De Boer et al., 2016). Therefore, individuals with AVH possess limitations of the right hemisphere. In addition, with the handling of different types of non-strict dialect, patients with AVH encounter awesome trouble preparing representations. Moreover, the lateralization of the right hemisphere affects an individual’s capability for the phonological composition of language.

Application to Therapy

The importance of understanding the correlation between the functions of the brain’s hemispheres is critical in providing care to people suffering from psychotic disorders. In addition, understanding of the way psychosis is manifested in patients equips the health provider with the necessary know-how for addressing the problem. The methods used in the case study explain how to diagnose psychosis correctly.

Article III: “How Does Difficulty Communicating Affect the Social Relationships of Older Adults? An Exploration Using Data from a National Survey”


The article presents different viewpoints concerning the way difficulties in interpersonal relationships affect the health of older people. The authors relate to the complexity of interpersonal relationships and evaluate the methods these relationships can be enhanced for the benefit of the individuals involved. The article emphasizes the critical role of communication in different gatherings that vary in matters of seriousness, situations, and occurrence of side effects that specify confinement, mobility, vision, perseverance, or insight. Notwithstanding that communication influences individuals of any age, the pervasiveness and multifaceted nature of these conditions increment with age and might be described by a steady, recuperating or degenerative course. Inabilities connected with communication issue may be regarded as a dynamic procedure that changes after some time rather than as a solitary static occasion that comprises remaining parts. Two expansive directions of incapacity and maturing have been investigated in this article and can be connected to those with communication problems.

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The inability of older people incorporates individuals who live the majority of their life without incapacity. They encounter either the unobtrusive correspondence issues connected with age or the onset of conditions such as the stroke that happens in seniority. Older people with the inability to assemble include individuals who either have deep rooted or early onset communication deficiency as an aftereffect of cerebral paralysis or sclerosis (MS) regarding the effectively existing handicap. Despite the direction, the communication issue develops with age and has essential ramifications for suppliers of human services. The article elucidates different communication handicaps experienced in old age and the way old age affects capacities of old people such as access to medicinal services and upkeep of social parts. In addition, proposals that safeguard and improve the existing communication barriers are presented.

Evaluation of the Article’s Quality

The article presents deep insights into the effects of the advanced age on the ability of the elderly to communicate competently. It provides the reader with relevant material in researching this field. Palmer, Newsom and Rook (2016) write in a clear and concise manner making the article an excellent tool and source of background information concerning the way inability to communicate affects old people’s quality of life. The article divides the key challenges into sections that are easy to grasp for the novice in the field of linguistics. Overall, the paper serves the purpose of presenting the reader an excellent expose of how the elderly tackle disabilities of various nature and the remedies that can be adopted to resolve them. As a linguistic student, I agree with the authors’ recommendation for more indepth research focusing on a wider spectrum of old-age disabilities. Clinical implications of the study interest me significantly as the impact of interventions is important to the health and wellbeing of individuals with CD.

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Agree/Disagree with Main Points

According to the article, difficulties in communication are an insufficiently studied phenomenon (Palmer et al., 2016). Therefore, I agree with the article’s explanations of what it means, the measures to be taken, and the essential impact that social connection and networking create on old people. Investigating these aspects, the authors’ conclusions echo the results of earlier findings. This correspondence distinguishes the article as an authoritative source of empirical evidence. In their conclusion, the authors confirm the facts that I have encountered in my studies regarding the interconnectivity of CD, demographics, and health in adult social relationships.

Application to Therapy

The article provides the novice student with the necessary foundation in pursuing a career in speech therapy and linguistics. The methods and procedures discussed in the article are essential in diagnosing and addressing the problems of CD in adults. For speech therapists and linguistics, these techniques are essential in the practice of delivering service successfully. Linguists work with individuals from various social, economic, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the capacity to utilize appropriate skills in improving the communication skills of these individuals in meaningful ways is critical to clinical settings. In addition, the following principles outlined in the article enables one to comprehend the complexity of this disorder and appreciate the importance of dispensing care and assistance in an empathetic and professional manner.

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