Indeed many people have no knowledge concerning the capability of the blinds with regards to matters concerned with programming. However, when there are appropriate tools to the blind, then they may find themselves competing with their normal sighted fellows in an effective manner. For this reason, Al-Ratta and Al-Khalifa, presents a systematic review of those initial literature publications on programming for blind persons. In this case, this study classifies the literature with regards to their areas of interest and also provides the quantitative analysis of the publications with regards to their type and year they became published.
.Al-Ratta, N. and Al-Khalifa, H. Teaching Programming for Blinds: A Review. Ieeexplore.ieee.org, 2015.
StructJumper: A Tool to Help Blind Programmers Navigate and Understand the Structure of Code
Sometimes it may be quiet complex for a blind developer to understand and also navigate large volumes of codes in faster manner since it may not be easy for them to skim when compared to their fellows who have no problems with sight. With a determination to assist the blind developers in containing this problem, Baker, Milne, and Ladner  present the StructJumper. The instance, StructJumper is an eclipse plugin that facilitates the creation of a hierarchical tree with reliance on the structure of the nesting of a class of Java. For this reason, it becomes possible for the programmer to use the TreeView in obtaining the overview of the structure of a code of a particular class. Similarly, the programmer may also quickly switch between the TreeView and the Text Editor so as to obtain the ideas concerned with the nesting of the structure.
.Baker, C., Milne, L. and Ladner, R. StructJumper: A Tool to Help Blind Programmers Navigate and Understand the Structure of Code. homes.cs.washington.edu, 2015.
Code Bubbles: A Working Set-Based Interface for Code Understanding and Maintenance
In most cases, the developers tend to spend a lot of time in reading and navigation of code fragments that lie across the various localities. Added to this, the file-oriented nature of the contemporary IDEs also makes not such easy in the creation and the maintenance of the simultaneous view of most of these fragments. For this reason, Bragdon, Zeleznik, Reiss, Karumuri, and Cheung  suggests for the application of novel user interface metaphor in order to understand the codes with regards to the collection of lightweight and editable fragments that are concurrent with visible working sets. Added to this, Code Bubbles enhance the improvement in the code of understanding time while navigation of its side reduces the interactions within the IDE for manageable tasks.
.Bragdon, A., Zeleznik, R., Reiss, S., Karumuri, S. and Cheung, W. Code Bubbles A Working Set-Based Interface for Code Understanding and Maintenance. andrewbragdon.com, 2015.
The Patchworks Code Editor: Toward Faster Navigation with Less Code Arranging and Fewer Navigation Mistakes
The reality is that many people that have problems of navigation spaces and as a result making the efficiency of navigation itself a concern. For this reason, Henley and Fleming  present on the problems faced by programmers during the navigation of large bases of codes and also gives the suggestion for a novel code editor, Patchworks for the handling of the same problems. To be specific enough, it is the Patchworks that provides for the leveraging of the two new interfaces such as the path grid and the ribbon. In this case, it assists the programmers in a faster way conducting navigation, elimination of occurrence of errors and also makes them spend less time in the arrangement of their codes.
.Henley, A. and Fleming, S. The Patchworks Code Editor: Toward Faster Navigation with Less Code Arranging and Fewer Navigation Mistakes. Dl.acm.org, 2015.
Evaluating a Fisheye View of Source Code
In this study, Jakobsen and Hornbaek  introduce the fisheye view of the source code to an environment of Java programming. The instance is due to the fact that the fisheye view goal is to offer support to a programmer’s navigation and also knowledge through the display of those sections of the source code that have the highest degree of attention with regards to the focus in place. Elsewhere, the study through the analysis is conducted on the interaction of the respondents with the fisheye view provides for the recommendations towards the improvement of the performance of the fisheye view. On top of this, by applying calculations on the levels of interests, the study stresses on the sections of the source code that are semantically in relationship to the programmer’s current focus.
.Jakobsen, M. and Hornbaek, K. Evaluating a Fisheye View of Source Code. kasperhornbaek.dk/papers/CHI2006_, 2015.
Making Programming Accessible to the Blinds
According to Konecki, Lovren, and Kudeli , it is indeed the development of the graphical interfaces and visual programming concepts that are the main cause of major problems among the blinds with regards to using of computers and visualization altogether. Though this problem may not look such big, it still hard to come across blind programmers. For this reason, the paper presents on the efforts put in place currently to ensure that graphical interfaces are highly accessible to the blinds. Added to this, it also identifies the tools and concepts that are there for the blind programmers in education and work sectors. Not forgetting, the study also confirms what the current solutions lack and proceeds to give the solutions for managing the problem
.Konecki, M., Lovren, A. and Kudeli, R. Making Programming Accessible to the Blinds. eeexplore.ieee.org, 2015.
How Programmers can Turn Comments into Waypoints for Code Navigation
In this paper, Storey’ et al , present on the approach for software navigation known as the TagSEA that is the Tagging of Software Engineering Activities in full meaning or definition. TagSEA comprises of the theory of “way-pointing” with “social tagging” so as to provide support to the programs in the definition of the structures of navigation on the software system. Based on the findings from this paper, they confirm that this tool indeed provides support for navigation in any circumstance.
.M.-A. Storey’, M., Cheng, 1., Singer, J., M2u3lle2r11, M., Myers’, D. and Ryall’, J. How Programmers can Turn Comments into Waypoints for Code Navigation. watson.ibm.com, 2015.
NaCIN – An Eclipse Plug-In for Program Navigation-based Concern Inference
Majid and Robillard  present on the description of the NACIN that is an eclipse plugin useful in recording the developer’s code navigation activity. Consequently, it leads to the production of various forms of elements that are capable of implementing various concerns in relevance to the present task. Similarly, the instance also evaluates on the navigation paths and structural reliance of the elements recorded as well as those clusters those results from groups in association with higher level based concepts or ideas. Elsewhere, NaCIN at initial stages of its operation provides for the automation of the process in relation to source code with high-level abstractions and enables knowledge about the implementation of different concerns to be reused in future investigations.
.Majid, I. and Robillard, M. NaCIN An Eclipse Plug-In for Program Navigation-based Concern Inference. Cs.mcgill.ca, 2015.
An Exploratory Study of Blind Software Developers
In this paper, it presents the description of the exploratory empirical study where engages the interview with blind software developers with the goal of identifying the elements of the software development as a challenge. From the findings, Merlin and Murphy-Hill  suggest that the instance of the visually impaired software developers indeed face various challenges. One of these challenges is the use of screen readers when checking for the information during the formulation of codes. Due to this, this paper presents the implications that blind software developers require with regards to the additional supports in finding out relevant software development tools.
.Merlin, S. and Murphy-Hill, E. An Exploratory Study of Blind Software Developers. people.engr.ncsu.edu, 2015.
Learning Rates for Auditory Menus Enhanced With Spearcons versus Earcons
Based on this paper, trends in the increment in the applications of menus from small electronic devices is becoming of importance because of the increments in the proliferation and the decrement in the physical sizes within their markets. For this reason, Palladino and Walker  insist that there is the need to deploy the use of auditory menus to enhance the menus found in these devices. For these reasons, this paper suggests that speakers perform much better than earcons with regards to the rate of learning among the blinds. On the same note, the comprehension of the spear does also take place through bicycle training and at the same time it is much easier the blind learners to learn using spears compared with earcons.
.Palladino, D. and Walker, B. LEARNING RATES FOR AUDITORY MENUS ENHANCED WITH SPEARCONS VERSUS EARCONS. academia.edu, 2015.
Blind Learners Programming Through Audio
Sanchez and Aguayo  in this study introduce the concept of APL, audio Programming Language for blind learners. APL itself relies on the audio interfaces in assisting the blind learners in coming up with solutions problems and also development on critical thinking in matters concerned with algorithms. In this case, APL enables blind learners to construct and also develop the real meaning of certain programs. Likewise, the APL models also suit the needs and the requirements of the blindness with the goal of offering motivation to them into venturing in the world programming.
.Sanchez, J. and Aguayo, F. Blind Learners Programming Through Audio. repositorio.uchile.cl, 2015. Non-visual Tool for Navigating Hierarchical Structures
According to Smith Francioni and Anwar , the hierarchical structure of any program is quite complex in its nature. For this reason, it is only the Integrated Development Environment, IDEs that are responsible for the provision of the graphical representation of any given structure of a program within its any level of abstraction. However, such representations may not be easily accessible to non-sighted programmers since the screen readers may not find it that easy in portraying then underlying hierarchical structure of particular information. For this reason, this paper presents the requirements for accessible that type of code of navigation called the tree navigation strategy. In this strategy, it prefers the eclipse IDE case due to its efficiency and effectiveness to no non-sighted programmers in the navigation of hierarchical structures.
.Smith, A., Francioni, J., and Anwar, M. Nonvisual Tool for Navigating Hierarchical Structures. Citeseerx.ist.psu.edu, 2015.
A Java Programming Tool for Students with Visual Disabilities
In this paper, it presents the programming language Java tool that makes it possible for those learners who are visually disabled in learning on how to develop a program. For this reason, Smith Francioni and Matzek  presents the rapid prototype called JavaSpeak that may be applicable for those persons with disabilities in defining of the desired needs for the whole of the version the tool altogether. In this regard, the prototype requires the application of a keyboard and a speech interface. The advantage that this tool has is that it adapts easily with the trials on various strategies.
.Smith, A., Francioni, J. and Matzek, S. A Java Programming Tool for Students with Visual Disabilities. cs.winona.edu, 2015.
On the Design of an Educational Infrastructure for the Blind and Visually Impaired in Computer Science
According to Stefik, Hundhausen, and Smith , the blind and the visually impaired persons in most of the occasions have low representation within the field of computer science. The reason is that those who wish to peruse this field have the obligation to overcome the significant technological and educational challenges for them to be successful. Further on top of this as a way of helping the visually impaired and the blind students, this paper suggests for the application of the multi-sensory educational structure for these blind students and visually impaired students. An example here is the case of the auditory programming environment called Sodbeans and Hop programming language. Others are the multisensory curriculum for sound and touch that also serve the same purpose altogether.
.Stefik, A., Hundhausen, C. and Smith, D. On the Design of an Educational Infrastructure for the Blind and Visually Impaired in Computer Science. Citeseerx.ist.psu.edu, 2015.
An empirical investigation into the design of auditory cues to enhance computer program comprehension
All along with the research work, there are notable improvements in the representations of applicable to in aiding human understanding of computer programs. However, most of these studies paid a lot of attention to visual representation while forgetting the other case of auditory representations within computer programs. In this regard, Stefka, Munchausen, and Patterson,  introduce the case of artifact encoding, a novel approach in the comprehensive evaluation of the capability of the auditory representations within computer programs. Based on this approach, the study presents the comparison of the comprehensibility two optional auditory program representations. The aspects are the one with lexical scoping that convey the levels of nesting of statements within programs and the other minus such scoping. From the findings got from the study through on the other minus scoping, it confirmed that auditory cues are significantly better than the state-of-the-art, affording human performance approaching the effectiveness of visual representations within the statistical margin of error
.Stefka, A., Munchausen, C. and Patterson, R. An empirical investigation into the design of auditory cues to enhance computer program comprehension. Elsevier, 2015.
Sonification of Geo-Referenced Data for Auditory Information Seeking: Design Principle and Pilot Study
This study concerns with the Auditory Information Seeking Principle, AISP that constitutes the elements such as gist, navigate, filter and details on demand modeled upon the visual information seeking mantra. For this reason, Zhao, Plaisant, Duraiswami, R., and Shneiderman  suggest that designs related to significations must operate within this principle of study, the AISP. On the same note, this study presents the challenges that certain designs that result from the effects of imposed human auditory perception features. With the objective of ensuring the improvement of accessibility among the blind to geo-referenced statistical components of data, the study suggested for the two preliminary sonification that adheres to AISP. The sonification types are the enhanced table and the spatial choropleth map.