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Transcultural nursing is a humanistic and coherent scope of formal study and practice in nursing. It is fixated on the relative examination of social orders on differences and similarities in healthcare, wellbeing, and illness designs, given social qualities, convictions, and practices of different cultures on the planet. The current paper will focus on the analysis of concept of transcultural nursing, as well as provide the nursing knowledge development and concepts of nursing based on this theory. Additionally, the paper will evaluate the evolution of the concept, terminologies associated with the idea, and evaluation of the use of other approaches in healthcare.

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Analysis of the Concept

Transcultural nursing is the mean by which professional nursing interfaces with the concept of society. The concept is related to nursing and anthropology and is upheld by nursing hypothesis, research, and practice. It is a particular cognitive specialty in nursing that spotlights on global societies and relative cultural caring, wellbeing and the phenomena of nursing. It was set up in 1955 by a theorist known as Madeleine Leininger as a formal area of request and practice. It is a collection of information, which is used to help in the provision of the appropriate care in nursing (Andrews & Boyle, 2011).

Transcultural nursing is applied in the field of nursing. It helps nurses to utilize cultural knowledge of patients to administer health care to them. Most importantly, nurses use this concept to know about ways in which patient’s culture and faith framework offer resources to their encounters with illnesses, suffering, and even death. It helps attendants to comprehend and be aware of the differing qualities that are frequently present in a nurse’s patient burden (Andrews & Boyle, 2011).

Other than the field of nursing, transcultural nursing can also be utilized in other areas. Transcultural nursing draws on an expansive field of data, extending beyond nursing to use research from numerous health science disciplines. These disciplines incorporate dental medicine and physical therapist education among others. For instance, in dentistry training, schools can reexamine their institutional strategies and frameworks to ensure they consider cultural contrasts of their patients, students, and staff. Transcultural nursing also has applicability in physical therapy education. The physical therapy profession holds onto social ability as a requisite expertise to guarantee the best practice in giving physical therapist administrations by reacting to individual and cultural contemplations, needs, and values (University of Pittsburgh, n.d.).

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Different Definitions of Transcultural Nursing

Madeleine Leininger, coordinator, and pioneer of the field portrays transcultural nursing as a substantive scope of study and practice that is focused on relative social care qualities, convictions, and practices of individuals or groups of comparable or absolutely different cultures (Andrews & Boyle, 2011).

In another definition, transcultural nursing is described as the mix of anthropological method of inquiry with nursing concepts of intervention and practice, which have care as a primary component (Sagar, 2014).

Formulated Definition

In my opinion, transcultural nursing is a part of healthcare that obliges nurses to perceive and acknowledge cultural contrasts in healthcare values, beliefs, and traditions. Besides, it is an idea that underlines the need for nurses to secure the necessary knowledge and aptitudes in cultural competency.

Current Trends Based on Transcultural Nursing Concept

In the current healthcare field, it is required for nurses to be sensitive to their patients’ cultural foundations, while making up a nursing plan. This is particularly vital because so many cultures are essential in whom they are as people, and it is these cultures that can influence their health, and their responses to treatment and care (Cherry & Jacob, 2014).

Based on the transcultural-nursing concept, there are current trends in nursing knowledge developments. Firstly, during healthcare administration to a client, nurses should ensure that the patient’s basic spoken language, race, or ethnicity is contained in the healthcare institution’s management information framework and the provider staff utilizes any client documentation. Further, healthcare organizations are developing and implementing strategies that will recruit, retain, and promote diverse, competent, and culturally qualified clinical, and administrative functions, as well as support staff members. The significance of this is to ensure that these officers are trained and skilled to handle the needs of ethnic and racial societies being served (Cherry & Jacob, 2014).

Meaning of Common Themes in Nursing Theories and Models


Nursing is portrayed as an informed humanistic and scientific discipline and calling, which is based on human care phenomena and activities on reinforcing, or enabling individuals or groups to keep up or recover their health in culturally important and productive ways (Sagar, 2014).

The Person

The person is defined as a bio psycho-sociocultural person who is continually adjusting to the environment he/she is in.


Society/environment is the entirety of an occasion, circumstance, or certain experience that offers means to human expressions, clarifications, social communications, and cultural settings (Sagar, 2014).


Health is a state of prosperity that is socially described, valued, and honed, and which reflects the limit of individuals or groups to perform their day-by-day roles in socially communicated, valuable, and planned ways of life (Sagar, 2014).

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Concepts of Nursing Related to Transcultural Nursing

There are both nursing and non-nursing approaches for cultural appraisal. There are two non-nursing models that are well known and they include the Outline of Cultural Materials Model and the Community, Culture and Care Approach. Nursing models include the Sunrise Model and Transcultural Assessment Model (Cultural Diversity, n.d).

Nursing Models Non-nursing Models
Sunrise Model – Portrays the major segments and interrelationships of social care, universality, and diversity. Medical attendants can utilize this model when watching over patients to guarantee that nursing activities are culture-specific (Cultural Diversity, n.d). Outline of Cultural Materials – was established to be applied by anthropologists. Therefore, it does not use the nursing process (Cultural Diversity, n.d).
Transcultural Assessment Model – it concentrates on six cultural spectacles that they believe shape care: time, environmental control, space, communication, social organization, and biological variations. It also serves as an asset for medical attendants when they are assigned duties to offer culturally dissonant care (Cultural Diversity, n.d). Community, Culture, and Care – many consider this tool complicated, and it is not a nursing approach. The lack of nursing focus regarding these two models has led to the establishment of culturally particular tools (Cultural Diversity, n.d).

Philosophical and History Evolution the Theory

The originator and pioneer of this new, particular psychological strength in nursing were Dr. Madeline Leininger. The chief proficient medical attendant with a plan to graduate with a doctorate in anthropology, Leininger took the “culture” build from anthropology and “care” from nursing and reformulated these two overwhelming developments into “culture care”. Her spearheading work started with her hypothesis of social care diversity and universality, refined in 1975 with the realistic “Sunrise model.” She separates the development of transcultural nursing into three eras: development of the field (1955-1975), research and program extension (1975-1983), and development of transcultural nursing globally (1983 to date) (Cultural Diversity, n.d).

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Terminology Associated with the Development of Transcultural Nursing Model

Leininger established new terms for the essential guidelines of her hypothesis. These definitions and principles incorporate care, caring, culture, cultural care, and cultural care diversity.

Care means helping others with genuine or expected needs with an end goal to enhance a human state of concern or to face death. Caring is an activity or action coordinated towards giving care. Culture alludes to the educated, shared, and transmitted qualities, beliefs, standards, and lifestyles of particular individuals or groups that advance their human state, choices, actions, and designed methods for living (Cultural Diversity, n.d).

Cultural care alludes to numerous facets of culture that impact and empower individuals to enhance their human state or deal with ailment or death. Cultural care diversity alludes to the distinctions in meanings, social qualities, or adequate methods of care inside or between various groups of individuals (Cultural Diversity, n.d).

Evaluating the Use of Nursing Theories in Healthcare

A nursing theory is an arrangement of ideas, definitions, connections, and presumptions or suggestions derived from nursing models or different disciplines. It recognizes what is ought to shape the basis of practice by explicitly describing nursing. The advantages of having a characterized body of theory in nursing incorporate better patient care, upgraded professional nurses, and enhanced communication amongst attendants (Nursing theories, 2012).

Criticizing a Nursing Concept (Transcultural Nursing) through Concept Analysis

While the significance of the performed work by Leininger is evident, some problems have been identified in her transcultural nursing system. The major issue is that she based the model on anthropological tool of functionalism. In anthropology, functionalism emphasizes understanding culture by highlighting particular customs, religious practices, health beliefs, and communication styles. This shallow view of human beings results in stereotyping (Cultural Diversity, n.d).

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Nursing Theories and Their Utilization in Nursing Education, Practice, and Research

Nursing Practice

Leininger’s three activity models can be utilized as a structure in different practice settings alongside the nursing procedure. Using Leininger’s three action modes requires extreme clinical judgment and basic intuition as the nurse diagnoses, surveys, plans, actualizes, and assesses care that is culturally congruent (Sagar, 2012).

Nursing Education

It is basic that transcultural nursing is expressly taught in undergraduate and graduate projects. The foundation of this contention is the advancement of transcultural nursing model and its significant impacts on learning, instructing, and the utilization of evidence-based practice. At present, the attention on social skill by the government by certifying bodies, and in academia, are heightening the call for formal courses in nursing programs, Transcultural Nursing Theory and Models and, other healthcare related fields (Sagar, 2012).


In nursing research, transcultural nursing model is also applied. It offers an orderly way to identify queries for study, select variables, interpret discoveries, and approve nursing interventions (Sagar, 2012).


In her model of transcultural nursing, Dr. Leininger has described the possibilities of utilization of information regarding culture of patients to offer culturally particular and universal nursing care to individuals. Leininger perceives the comparative aspects of caring inside and between societies, henceforth resulting in the affirmation of similarities as much as the contrasts of caring in diverse communities.

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